1. Bilawal: Bright, cheerful, optimistic, associated with mornings and spring. Features Komal Ni (Ni). Examples: Yaman, Miyan ki Todi, Basant Bahar.

2. Kalyan: Similar to Bilawal, but slightly brighter and energetic. Also features Komal Ni. Examples: Bhimpalasi, Charukeshi, Basant Bahar.

3. Khamaj: Majestic, introspective, evokes depth and intensity. Features Teevra Ma (Ma+). Examples: Bhairavi, Todi, Yaman Kalyan.

4. Bhairav: Deeply melancholic, intense, conveys emotions of longing and yearning. Features Teevra Ma. Examples: Yaman, Jogia, Todi.

5. Poorvi: Intensely sober, evocative of dusk and melancholy. Features Komal Dha (Dha-) and Teevra Ma. Examples: Puriya Dhanashree, Shree.

6. Marwa: Similar to Poorvi, but slightly lighter and with a touch of drama. Features Komal Dha and Teevra Ma. Examples: Miyan ki Todi, Tilak Kamod.

7. Kafi: Late-evening raga, associated with love, longing, and separation. Features Komal Nishad (Ni-) and Komal Gandhar (Ga-). Examples: Yaman, Charukeshi.

8. Asavari: Evocative of loneliness and separation, often used in devotional music. Features Komal Dha and Komal Ga. Examples: Darbari Kanada, Basant Bahar.

9. Bhairavi: Majestic and introspective, like its parent thaat Bhairav. Features Teevra Ma. Examples: Malkauns, Khamaj, Todi.

10. Todi: Deeply melancholic and somber, shares characteristics with both Bhairav and Poorvi. Features Teevra Ma and often Komal Dha. Examples: Yaman Kalyan, Puriya Dhanashree.

Understanding these thaats helps deepen your appreciation for Hindustani ragas. By recognizing the shared characteristics and swaras, you can better explore the emotional nuances and unique identities of different ragas.

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